A number of applications have been standardized to operate on top of TCP. I mention three of the most common application here:

The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol(SWTP) provides a basic electronic mail facility. It provides a mechanism for transferring messages among separate hosts. Features of SMTP include mailing lists, return…

The below diagram indicates how these protocols are configured for communications. To make clear that the total communications facility may consist of multiple networks, the constituent networks are usually referred to as subnetworks. Some sort of network access protocol, such as the Ethernet logic, is used to connect a computer…

The TCP/IP protocol architecture is a result of protocol research and development conducted on the experimental packet-switched network, ARPANET, funded by the Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency, and is generally referred to as the TCP/IP protocol suite. …

Figure 1.a

We begin our study with a simple model of communications, illustrated by the block diagram in figure 1.a

The fundamental purpose of a communications system is the exchange of data between two parties. Another example is the exchange of voice signals between two telephones over the same network. …

What is Black Box testing?

Black Box Testing is a software testing method in which the functionalities of software applications are tested without having knowledge of internal code structure, implementation details, and internal paths. Black Box Testing mainly focuses on the input and output of software applications and it is entirely based on software requirements…

The central processing unit consists of six main components:

  • Control unit (CU)
  • Arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
  • Registers
  • Cache
  • Buses
  • Clock

All components work together to allow processing and system control. The following chapter will describe the above six components.

Control unit

The CU provides several functions:

  • it fetches, decodes, and executes instructions

What is CPU Pipelining?

Is the process of accumulating instruction from the processor through a pipeline. It allows storing and executing instructions in an orderly process. It is known as pipeline processing. In simple terms breaking down the job into smaller parts. Also, it is a special technique to increase processor performance.

Pipelining breaks…

What is Data Communication?

Data communication is the interchange of the data linking two nodes via a Transmission medium as a cable.

Data Flow

  • Data is going to flow from one node to another node. And there are three different ways :


Half- duplex

Full- duplex

Data Flow — Simplex

  • Simplex is the data flow…

As we all know input and output devices communicate with the computer. Therefore to identify what is happening inside of the computer we can look at the 6 levels of the computer. Each virtual machine layer is an abstraction of the level below it.

Level 06 — User

Level 5…


Second year undergraduate University of Moratuwa.

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